In the previous installment of this architecture organization series, I wrote about organizing your model repository according to business, information and technology domains. I also explained the need to create separate current- and future-state models, and the separation between and model content and views. In this part of the series, I have a few more things to add on the topic of naming and modeling conventions, as well as advice on how to set up governance and quality assurance structure around your models.
4. Define naming and other modeling conventions
To be able to find anything in a large-scale model, you have to know what to look for. In plain language, you’ll need to know what things are called – and how they’re labeled – in your model. This is why defining clear naming conventions is essential. Different organizations will have their own specific naming schemes, so no universal convention applies to all situations.
Nevertheless, here are common tips that may help you create your naming process:
- Let business experts ‘own’ the names and definitions of capabilities, business processes, functions and the like. If IT people invent new names for those, the business will often fail to recognize ‘their business’ in it, leading to misinterpretations and misunderstandings.
- Define specific naming conventions for specific types of elements. For example, use a present-tense verb plus a noun for process names (e.g. ‘Handle Claim’). That way, the name of an element already gives you information on the type of thing being modeled.
- In large organizations, use pre- or postfixes for names, such the business domain of the element. This is particularly important if these domains use the same names. For example, in an insurance company, different domains like ‘health,’ ‘life’ or ‘property’ may each have a ‘Handle Claim’ process, but these processes will differ. Calling them ‘Handle Claim – Health’ or ‘Handle Claim – Property’ helps distinguish between them.
- Make a clear separation between different aspects of the same real-life entity being modeled. If you model a customer who takes part in a process as an actor, don’t use the same name for the information you capture on that customer. You should also have a different name from the customer file or database in which you store that information. Calling all of these elements ‘Customer’ will surely confuse the hell out of anyone using your model.
- Be selective in your use of modeling concepts. Languages like ArchiMate are very rich and powerful, but you will seldom need all their concepts. Choosing which concepts to use for which purpose and limiting yourself to the essentials is key to keeping your architectures easy to understand.
Figure 2. Overview of your EA capability, ways of working and best practices.
5. Establish an ‘editorial board’
To create collaboration in large, federated organizations, you cannot rely on simple top-down control from a central department. There has to be room for local variance simply because, in large organizations, no standard will fit all situations.
Nevertheless, you do need to coordinate between different departments and domains to ensure their ways of working are compatible, and to share and benefit from each other’s experiences so you can build up your own library of organization-specific best practices.
Working with such large and complex organizations, I have seen that it is often helpful to create a kind of ‘editorial board,’ composed of representative architecture and modeling experts from different areas of the organization. They can locate shared ways of working and other commonalities across your architectures (such as the modeling conventions and structuring mentioned previously), and they can coach their less experienced colleagues in applying these practices to promote high-quality models.
However, an ‘editorial board’ is not the same as your typical architecture board, which decides on the architectural content itself. Rather, this editorial board supervises the way architectures are modeled and described. These are two distinct competencies: A good architecture may be badly documented, and poor architecture may be well-documented. Make sure both are well-done.
6. Define clear responsibilities, access rights, user groups and procedures
In any large-scale organization, you have to be clear about who does what and who has access to which materials. If everyone can edit anything in your architecture models, you can guess what will happen. Things may get moved or entire models may be deleted.
In general, I would not advocate hiding parts of the architecture from view (unless for specific security-related reasons). Architects should be trusted to see the work of their peers and make good use of that. However, you will likely need to limit write access to the people who have a defined role in creating or updating models. Otherwise, your models will quickly become a mess.
One way to do this is to organize the work on your future-state architectures in projects, each with their own specific models, as described above. Project teams have the right to change their project models but the results are only published to the wider architecture repository when they are sufficiently ready, as decided by a lead architect or decision maker within the organization.
Figure 3. Common architecture-related roles
Enterprise Studio’s Team Platform supports your organization’s different projects, roles and rights for designers and lead designers, and it offers user groups that can be organized as project teams. Moreover, the workflow facilities in the HoriZZon portal allow you to create approval and review workflows to organize the architecture development process.
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